Android Raw Socket Permission

Permissions. Therefore, only members of the Administrators group can create sockets of type SOCK_RAW on Windows 2000 and later. IO clients in Java and Android, but you will find socket. Antonyms for raw throat. 2 kernel), but they are currently getting more attention, as a means of security for containers. (2) You seem to be confusing yourself with terminology. Although the API is simple, new developers can experience some common problems. PING icmp open socket: Operation not permitted in vserver. Raw socket et problème d'endianness Salutations ! Seulement quand j'envoie les datagrams à un site, wireshark me dit montre que le champ "Protocol" est de type IPv4 alors que je veux envoyer un paquet TCP. Carefulsecuritydesign(moresothanforwebordesktopapplications). Android Debug Bridge (adb) is a versatile command-line tool that lets you communicate with a device. Net and System. It is then certainly capable of speaking WebSocket. The IPv4 layer generates an IP header when sending a packet unless the IP_HDRINCL socket option is enabled on the socket. connect((serverHost, serverPort)) sSock. Any help/ideas are very much appreiciated. IO的网络库,那么AndroidAsync再适合不过。. I am trying to create a client socket on a secondary thread from a Windows 2000 COM service. FIFO Client/Server Program in Unix Using C Programming. Introduction Ping is a simple concept to find and ensure that a host computer or device the user wants to connect is actually working and available on users network. Specifically:. "could not create raw socket, root privileges required" Anyone know what that means?? I have been using Linux for a few months so this could be a simple configuration problem. Traversing the filesystem to find files like wp-config. It should be placed outside of the application tag, such as:. There are two ways to perform a ping in Android using Android's own APIs: use the isReachable() method of the InetAddress class. If you are looking for an easy to use, higher level, Android aware, http request library, check out Ion (it is built on top of AndroidAsync). Servers Ultimate Pro is a Tools android app made by Ice Cold Apps that you can install on your android devices an enjoy !. Netlink is a datagram-oriented service. Download last version Servers Ultimate Pro Apk Full Paid For Android with direct link. Control your app permissions on Android 6. In this case it will only have a local address and a protocol, but is is still a socket. A recent example is when I use Pixlr. Android, at least, tells. AllPorts);. I think the problem has to do with root access Does any one have an idea of how to resolve this? Thanks in Advance Madhav--. tcp and sockets. The first category is usually used for administrative purposes, like starting and stopping other processes, tuning the kernel and opening sockets. 166, but we're still getting the fsockopen failure. Allows the app to create network sockets and use custom network protocols. 0 Service Pack 5. Since linux 2. In this tutorial we will learn How to Save a File on Internal Storage Using Android Studio. In addition, a raw socket can be bound to a specific network device using SO_BINDTODEVICE; see socket(7). Synonyms for raw recruit in Free Thesaurus. for raw IP6 sockets created with a third argument other than IPPROTO_ICMPV6), the application must: Set the new IPV6_CHECKSUM socket option to have the socket manager compute and store a pseudo header checksum for output. protocol is the AppleTalk protocol to be received or sent. Stack Exchange Network. AF_INET where socket. 监视网络适配器的速度 《网络监视系统》(网络编程C++) c#计算网络速度; C#进程监视(Process实现) 用C#的Raw Socket实现网络封包监视. They don't go anywhere - sockets are a disparate concept. 24/7 Customer Service. netlink_family selects the kernel module or netlink group to communicate with. SOCK_RAW is a type of socket that denotes a "raw socket" in the same way that SOCK_STREAM denotes a datastream socket and SOCK_DGRAM denotes a datagram socket. Im using W7 64. The web_socket_channel package provides the tools you need to connect to a WebSocket server. This application needs to run with non root user privileges. Is it possible to create raw sockets if the Android device is rooted? Raw sockets in. Download Servers Ultimate apk 7. In her talk, Gabbi details how to use the network socket option SO_REUSEADDR to allow multiple processes on the same server to listen on the same network port. Both SOCK_RAW and SOCK_DGRAM are valid values for socket_type. c because the device and devno arrays are too small, as demonstrated by an invalid free when using the btt program with a crafted file. tcp and sockets. socket(socket. 106, from tcpdump-captured packets, I notice the host broadcast an ARP query for the MAC. 1, mas vi que outras versões também são afetadas. I came across Linux Capabilities while researching PID namespaces in the Linux Kernel. CBXE8 - TIdUDPClient ReceiveBuffer() no data received in Android ? A Win32 raw socket UDP server is running at 192. Which permissions does my user need to open a socket?. Servers Ultimate Pro is a Tools android app made by Ice Cold Apps that you can install on your android devices an enjoy !. sock = socket(PF_INET, SOCK_RAW, IPPROTO_UDP); b) 建立数据从Mac头开始(IP checksum必须自己做),sendto发送出去(不支持分片包,需要自己手动分片)发送出去网口自己指定,并且发送数据的Src Mac地址与发送口无关。. It supports different network protocols like SSH, Telnet, and raw socket connection. Their firewall is IP based, so we added 64. So I'm running kali on windows which I suppose might be the problem. AlarmClock; BlockedNumberContract; BlockedNumberContract. August 10, 2018 at 6:06 pm. In addition, a raw socket can be bound to a specific network device using SO_BINDTODEVICE; see socket(7). 254`, for IPv6 raw sockets the `address` parameter contains the compressed formatted IP address of the remote host to send the data to, e. 46 Apk Full Paid latest is a Tools Android app. A recent example is when I use Pixlr. BSD socket variables are usually named sock or some variation thereof. Python socket - server and client example (push notifications) - socket_client. The same code is working fine in Ubuntu and able to execute the linux applications. 3 Task 3: Sniff and then Spoof. 4 words related to raw talent: endowment, natural endowment, talent, gift. raw socket 是很底层的,没有具体的协议,可以用他去实现 websocket 协议或其它任何的协议. SIGNATURE / SYSTEM - control backup’s, delete packages etc. Black Friday: 20% Off on Hotel Rates. Hi all, Could somebody help me understand the work around mentioned in bug. android-ndk Help needed in porting linux drivers on android - Chris non ARM android devices? - Tim Hutt: Re: RAW socket using. xml file and ass the following lines:. Synonyms for raw recruit in Free Thesaurus. I agree that not all these programs need running under root account permission, but I don't understand why for a lot of servers, fping check is OK, and for few servers it's not, and that the automatically uses fping6. Socket Send and Receive [C#] This example shows how to send and receive data via TCP/IP using Socket in. It is alright if the program is running as part of the system service under root anyway. But the ping connection is failing because of creating raw socket with non root user. Which permissions does my user need to open a socket?. A network socket is an internal endpoint for sending or receiving data within a node on a computer network. AlarmClock; BlockedNumberContract; BlockedNumberContract. Packet sniffers are programs that intercept the network traffic flowing in and out of a system through network interfaces. How can I run the application successfully with non root user privileges using raw socket creation?. JS chat server, with our native Android Client! If you want to jump straight to the code, its on GitHub. While the 'StressTest' is failing PINGING LocalHost, I also run PING localHost in a CMD window and this PING does get the echo expected. This cap should have been set by package managers on most distros when installing mtr. That's what I need to know how to bring up again. If you really want to receive all IP packets, use a packet(7) socket with the ETH_P_IP protocol. BSD socket variables are usually named sock or some variation thereof. Anyway, socket is for event-drive communication between apps/devices and I love it for exchanging data/commands by pushing data instead of polling data. The command ping is a great example why even small programs needs root permissions. I'm new to. To get around that issue, you can setuid the application. Black Friday: 20% Off on Hotel Rates. Note: substitute socket. This function is used with connection-based socket types (SOCK_STREAM). org, a friendly and active Linux Community. Android permissions used to be a mess, but modern versions of Android have simplified them greatly. Antonyms for raw recruit. Their firewall is IP based, so we added 64. I have also installed Kali on an older Toshiba tablet hybrid in multiboot with Windows. Run the application as a normal user and it fails. Simple TCP Client as Android widget with connection handled by AsyncTasks + IP number finding dynamically. For example, when we analyze permission read in object class tcp_socket, read permission is inherited from file. net package is a platform-independent implementation of the client end of a two-way communication link between a client program and a server program. jni调用c库创建raw socket失败:本帖最后由 heartlesstoanyone 于 2012-07-18 20:09:40 编辑 使用c编写了so文件,封装了udp发包线程。对应用已给了INTERNET权限,但在创建raw socket时报错:Operation not permitted。 请各位大侠指下明路,不胜感谢。. raw data Unprocessed data from a clinical trial that is in its original form, in contrast to derived data. Typically four 6-core or 8-core CPUs are used, providing a total of 24 to 32 processing cores per server. rb, which currently has eth0 as the device 3 describe 'RawSocket' do 4 let(:eth_device) { 'eth0' } Now I want to see if the outputting mac address function works. 首先我们先来看android构架图: system with odd permissions chown system cache group inet net_raw socket mdnsd stream 0660 mdnsr. 在android 项目中 怎么用代码获取用户是否开启或者拒绝了某一个应用的权限,比如。拍照权限、定位权限、. Normally Unix based systems use two kind of processes: privileged and unprivileged. its only the directory where the ndo2db process tries to write a socket file. /pathto/mtr. netlink_family selects the kernel module or netlink group to communicate with. Raw socket은 인터넷 프로토콜 패킷을 주고받게 해주는 소켓이다. Need Server and Client Project. (1 reply) Does anybody know how to open raw socket "s = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_RAW, IPPROTO_RAW)" in an Andriod device which is not rooted? I am going to develop some Apps which need to open raw socket but seems it does not work if the machine is not rooted. Creation of a new socket will fail if the process does not have write and search (execute) permission on the directory the socket is created in. To start a web socket communication, you create a HTTP GET request with a special HTTP headers. INTERNET权限 注:在. For new drivers, visit the software manufacturers’ website, download and install. A raw socket receives or sends the raw datagram not including link level headers. I would like permission to distribute some Android APKs that use the Citra code, but the actual code is no longer available. The full details of the 1. I want to start a websocket server, but can't connect to it from other machines. RockSaw Raw Socket Library for Java. The first category is usually used for administrative purposes, like starting and stopping other processes, tuning the kernel and opening sockets. This issue only affects Linux-based platforms. Another feature of UNIX domain sockets under Linux is the ability to authenticate a peer with the SO_PEERCRED socket option. Raw sockets can also be used to manipulate IP header information. Such permissions use value FILE__*. Permission check android. IO library for Android. 0/16 to scan my network for devices I get the error: Couldn't open a raw socket. Translate the host/port argument into a sequence of 5-tuples that contain all the necessary arguments for creating a socket connected to that service. Les sockets bruts sont tout simplement des sockets de type SOCK_RAW. Web API REST Services is not executing in Xamarin Android do not forget to give permissions to tried call web api from xamarin android {System. OPENVPN RAW SOCKET ★ Most Reliable VPN. The problem is that raw sockets have been disabled in Windows ever since the time of XP, so the program won't run perfectly on newer versions. IO works by adding event listeners to an instance of http. Message Queue in Unix Using C Programming. We have covered Client side implementation in our previous post “Android Client-Server Using Sockets – Client Implementation” Android has very vast set of libraries so that users can implement innovative ideas with provided libraries. once the user uninstalls this application, these files will automatically remove. the key connection is the connect function:. But the ping connection is failing because of creating raw socket with non root user. To do this, you must use and AF_PACKET raw socket in your program, instead of a SOCK_RAW/IPPROTO_RAW socket. Stack Exchange Network. o • Principals=Applications. rb, which currently has eth0 as the device 3 describe 'RawSocket' do 4 let(:eth_device) { 'eth0' } Now I want to see if the outputting mac address function works. While the 'StressTest' is failing PINGING LocalHost, I also run PING localHost in a CMD window and this PING does get the echo expected. Owner: nobody Maybe is a permission problem. 0 (API level 23), users can revoke permissions from any app at any time, even if the app targets a lower API level. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. I always look up the 1 last update 2019/10/25 Kelley Blue Book value of a openvpn raw socket used car before I go to a openvpn raw socket used car dealer. I want to start a websocket server, but can't connect to it from other machines. But disabling Firewall is inevitable. The thing is that I also port the app from XP to win7 and have not experienced any problems on xp. 当前位置:首页 » raw-socket. I search so many libs/dll for MT4 (WinSock, WinINET) for this but all do not work. It is simple and powerful. Transfer data from Client to Server using Sockets 11 Aug 2014 on Android In the previous post - Connect Two Android Devices over WiFi using Network Service Disocvery, we showed how we used Network Service Discovery to connect two android devices over WiFi. android socket 一段时间突然就连不上了 要重新启动app才行 求问Android NDK使用Raw Socket如何获取root权限啊?. For a third-party application to access these devices, it must first be explicitly provided access by the user through the use of Android OS Permissions. They just use raw sockets. linux TCP handshake with SOCK_RAW socket. SOCK_RAW is a type of socket that denotes a "raw socket" in the same way that SOCK_STREAM denotes a datastream socket and SOCK_DGRAM denotes a datagram socket. This needs me to create a raw socket. Root permissions. 05/31/2018; 9 minutes to read; In this article. permission AndroidManifest. What I can't do is that step where the Android dialog pops up that lets you choose the top-most folder to give it write access to. Trying some socket programming when i ran in to a problem i cant solve. >あなたのコードはすべてのパケットがtcpであると仮定していますが、そうではありません。 rawソケットはレイヤ3プロトコル(ip、icmpなど)のみをサポートします。つまり、rawソケットを作成するときにipproto_tcpを使用すると誤解を招く可能性があります。. UDP and ICMP raw socket packets aren’t working. This is to help users get up and running quickly. com; Downloads; Cloud Trials; Other Languages. Connecting to the socket object requires read/write permission. Programs may cause the Winsock protocol to. Introduction Ping is a simple concept to find and ensure that a host computer or device the user wants to connect is actually working and available on users network. A Network Scanner needs to ping hosts. # net_bw_stats grants access to other apps ' detailed tagged-socket stats. DANGEROUS - Related to spending money, private info 3. They just use raw sockets. In Android 5. sock = socket(PF_INET, SOCK_RAW, IPPROTO_UDP); b) 建立数据从Mac头开始(IP checksum必须自己做),sendto发送出去(不支持分片包,需要自己手动分片)发送出去网口自己指定,并且发送数据的Src Mac地址与发送口无关。. 具体分析如下: 需要实现的功能:采用udp下的socket编程,当按下确认键,模拟器. TCP Socket Programming in Unix Using C Programming. 在android 项目中 怎么用代码获取用户是否开启或者拒绝了某一个应用的权限,比如。拍照权限、定位权限、. A raw socket receives or sends the raw datagram not including link level headers. Which permission class you use depends on your application type. How to C# Socket programming C# simplifies the network programming through its namespaces like System. Debian testing (kernel 4. In this Android Client-Server Using Sockets post series we will be focusing on server side implementation. Protocol 255 uses the raw socket with the IP header being part of the data. I have so task that make android device talk to some device that uses ethernet directly. An app using this permission usually provides an interface to deal with a certain account type (which is not known by the pre-installed Android system), such as Dropbox. We have enabled the root permissions to Mobile phone and created APK using the same code, which is used in Linux using Android Java Applications. In-store trade-in requires presentation of a openvpn raw socket valid, government-issued photo ID (local law may require saving this information). tcp and sockets. IPPROTO_TCP) # receive a packet while True: print s. Hi, Im trying to create a RAW socket using the NDK. Now you can run a Caddy, CVS, DC Hub, DHCP, UPnP, DNS, DDNS, eDonkey, Email (POP3 / SMTP), FTP. The typical Android app developer would probably be more interested in Ion. Raw Socket의 특징. In this post, we are going to show how we used this to our advantage to connect and send. In this case it will only have a local address and a protocol, but is is still a socket. Try reading from right to left, away from the variable name. 假设你须要一个未被封装的Android的raw Socket。 HTTP client/server, WebSocket, and Socket. If you are trying to communicate with a WCF service with a raw socket, it may be difficult and quite involved. UNIX Network Programming, Volume 1: The Sockets Networking API, Third Edition "Everyone will want this book because it provides a great mix of practical experience, historical perspective, and a depth of understanding that only comes from being intimately involved in the field. dll, which is on the approved list. iOS does not inform you of the permissions. mtr says "mtr: unable to get raw sockets" This is because mtr needs to open raw sockets, which it can only do as root: unable to get raw sockets. I don't want to run my application as root. xml 栏目 系统网络 在AndroidManifest. There is no need to provide the port and IP address to a raw socket, unlike in the case of stream and datagram sockets. py – IP sniffer using Scapy. Sockets are bidirectional, meaning that either side of the connection is capable of both sending and receiving data. You will also need superuser privileges to see this information on sockets you don't own. host is a domain name, a string representation of an IPv4/v6 address or None. Using raw sockets is quite straightforward; it involves four steps: (1) create a raw socket, (2) set socket option, (3) construct the packet, and (4) send out the packet through the raw socket. The HondaLink® app has added new and exciting remote control features like Remote Engine Start, Remote Door Lock/Unlock, and Find My Car, available for 2018+ Odyssey Touring, 2018+ Accord Touring, 2019 Insight Touring, 2019 Pilot* and Passport* Touring/Elite vehicles. The "raw" refers to the socket itself where one might program directly to the socket without going through the TCP/IP programming interface Explanation of Raw sockets. # net_bw_acct grants impersonation of socket owners. I used procket to handle the privileged socket operations and pass the file descriptor into Erlang. Specifically, sudo rspec raw_socket_spec. (1) In case you don't understand xenoid's comment: In Unix, a process must be running as root to manipulate raw sockets. The code compiles but when i try to start th | The UNIX and Linux Forums. I am getting am IOException - Permission Denied. But there’s no awaitable method for Accept, Receive and Send. Android Debug Bridge (adb) is a versatile command-line tool that lets you communicate with a device. IO library for Android. This is the function I call and gives me this exception. I would like to make each chart a socket client to connect to socket server. raw nfca raw mtk raw vtk raw no raw modules loaded. In principle, it should be possible by using the socket. You may have to register or Login before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. I want to start a websocket server, but can't connect to it from other machines. Hallo, ich spiele mich zurzeit ein wenig mit Raw Socket und hab ein kleines ping tool geschrieben. Programming :: How To Create Raw Socket With Non Root User Successfully? Jun 30, 2011. To create a 'Generic (Text-only)' - AKA a "RAW Sockets" - print queue under the latest version of CUPS. For a WSL Unix socket to establish connection with Windows Unix sockets, the first operation after the socket is created should be either a bind or connect. There are many online tutorials that can teach you how to use raw sockets in C programming. never exits the while loop below. We've been having the same issue with our host, aplus. Is there any way to implement an ICMP Echo without the use of RAW sockets? I get "Permission Denied" while trying to ping using a non-admin account. Raw socket connections worked fine. So this seems to be an permission Problem. FIFO Client/Server Program in Unix Using C Programming. If it isn't bound all packets with the specified IP protocol are received. WinPcap Capture Driver: Allows you to capture TCP/IP packets on all Windows operating systems. Yes, I do use raw sockets. Error: Permission denied (13)' I will update this article later with a solution. 16 The NFC daemon. How can I run the application successfully with non root user privileges using raw socket creation?. These options are defined in the file. Anonymous said This program only partially works for me - pressing connect does show correct messages on the server device, but the client app only receives the input stream the one time into the buffer, then "inputStream. Question 6 Why do you need the root privilege to run the programs that use raw sockets?. The example. Concretely, it is a representation of this endpoint in networking software (protocol stack), such as an entry in a table (listing communication protocol, destination, status, etc. 0 (9) Android. Question 5 Using the raw socket programming, do you have to calculate the checksum for the IP header? No the computer generally the system automatically does this, or rather it fills it in. A raw socket is a type of socket that allows access to the underlying transport provider. You are currently viewing LQ as a guest. Hi Thanks very much for your reply. This means the user david has just been granted permissions (through Linux capabilities) to open raw sockets within Singularity containers. It also acts as a Connection Stabilizer. AlarmClock; BlockedNumberContract; BlockedNumberContract. Web Sockets are a standard based on HTTP for asynchronous message-based communication between a client and a server. Leider ist dadurch das Debugging flöten gegangen. In our labs we will basically be working with TCP sockets. The programs demonstrate the Internet domain sockets. This chapter is dedicated to illustrating how raw sockets can be used to simulate IP utilities, such as Traceroute and Ping. (For UNIX domain sockets, which are identified by pathname) Write permission is denied on the destination socket file, or search permission is denied for one of the directories the path prefix. This method has some limitations and problems. Resources r = getResources(); InputStream file = r. Chinese; Japanese; Portuguese. SOCK_RAW, socket. Raw Portable Pixel Map listed as RPPM. > > Work-Around: > > To allow the use of ICMP sockets by ping, you need to enable them for root: > > 1. Anonymous said This program only partially works for me - pressing connect does show correct messages on the server device, but the client app only receives the input stream the one time into the buffer, then "inputStream. Which permission class you use depends on your application type. 0, which an ifconfig reveals to be true also on my Pi. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. So lets begin. Raw Sockets (Only for Windows 2000/XP or greater): Allows you to capture TCP/IP packets on your network without installing a capture driver. In Android permissions are categorized into three threat levels: 1. openRawResource(R. socket style scanning. 3 (不知道是否和系统有关系),写了一段raw socket程序,发送自定义IP头数据,但是发送时显示errno=13,无权限,现在不知道如何弄了,主要代码如下:. This cap should have been set by package managers on most distros when installing mtr. mtr says "mtr: unable to get raw sockets" This is because mtr needs to open raw sockets, which it can only do as root: unable to get raw sockets. Hi, I developed an android app that uses bluetooth connection to print receipts through iMZ320 printers, everything works great on Android 4. Hi I am learning WCF I wrote a simple code and got this error A TCP error (10013: An attempt was made to access a socket in a way forbidden by its access permissions. Sending raw Ethernet packets from a specific interface in C on Linux Posted on September 14, 2011 June 3, 2012 by austinmarton Lately I’ve been writing some code to send packets to a specific MAC address from a specific interface. You are currently viewing LQ as a guest. Scripts that use high privileges but need to be startable by a non-admin can be provided by the task scheduler. 这篇文章主要介绍了android开发socket编程之udp发送,实例分析了Android开发socket网络编程中udp发送的相关技巧,非常具有实用价值,需要的朋友可以参考下 本文实例讲述了android开发socket编程之udp发送实现方法. Webscokets abstract away complexity by using a more generalised event based system, similar to that of the HTTP protocol. Looking for abbreviations of RP? It is Raw Pack. To create a 'Generic (Text-only)' - AKA a "RAW Sockets" - print queue under the latest version of CUPS. INTERNET" The first one is reqd when we are doing Camera. linux redhat 6. Android App Permissions - Really? 17 posts Allows the app to create network sockets and use custom network protocols. Raw UDP packets with increasing TTL values are targetted at strange port numbers. Socket-based software usually runs on two separate computers on the network, but sockets can also be used to communicate locally (interprocess) on a single computer. In this tutorial, we like to show you how to Read and Write text file in Android Studio. Chinese; Japanese; Portuguese. android firmware 利用UDP socket发送Magic Packet 1 Magic Packet格式: 6个0xFF + 16个Dst Mac Address 2 代码需要设置目的 网络远程唤醒 WOL Magic Packet. android socket传送数据怎么得到整型 用raw socket抓包发现接收到的数据IP头的lenth为0,而数据还在,这是为什么?. I’m trying to implement ICMP Flooding mechanism. OPENVPN RAW SOCKET 255 VPN Locations. A socket can be a UDP socket, or a raw IP socket, therefore not connected to another end-point. 2 Comentários. This means the user david has just been granted permissions (through Linux capabilities) to open raw sockets within Singularity containers. But if you're looking for a raw Socket, HTTP(s) client/server, and WebSocket library for Android, AndroidAsync is it. CR을 null로 padding해서 전송. You should be able to run this, subject to the OS and firewall restrictions on raw sockets. There is an opportunity to earn extra credit on this assignment. Each domain and type should be ended with “_t”. Any help/ideas are very much appreiciated. socket permissions in java. The 10,000 people on the planet that care about Web Sockets are not your customers, and while using Web Sockets might get you mentioned on TechCrunch, supporting only Web Sockets is a great way to cut your potential audience in half. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Inspired by her talk, I’ve decided to write about the SO_PEERCRED socket option and Go. It can be, e. com Notifies this ProxySelector that a connection to the proxy server. IO clients in Java and Android, but you will find socket.